English |
 
Your position: Home > Terminology > Details

Smart Grid
Font Size: Large Medium Small | Default

Smart grid can effectively promote the development and consumption of clean energy resources, meet diverse and customized user needs, and improve system security, flexibility and cost-effectiveness. Smart grid is to flourishing over the world. Numerous technical researches and engineering practices have laid a solid foundation for Global Energy Interconnection.

Concept and features

Concept

Smart grid is a new type modern power grid integrating modern communication & information, automatic control and decision. Characterized by informatization, automation and interaction, it generally covers all aspects of power source integration, transmission, transformation, distribution, consumption, and dispatching. It can be adapted to flexible plug in & out of various power supplies and electricity facilities, and engage in user-friendly interactions. Its intelligent response system and selfhealing capability can significantly improve the security, reliability and operational efficiency of the power system.

Features

Strong and Reliable
Smart grid has a strong grid structure, large power transmission capacity and secure and reliable supply of electricity.

Economic and Efficient
Smart grid improves grid operation and transmission efficiency, reduces operation costs and promotes effective use of energy resources and power assets.

Clean and Environmentfriendly
Smart grid promotes clean energy development and utilization, reduces energy consumption and pollutant emissions, and improves the proportion of clean energy in end-use energy consumption.

Transparent and Open
Smart grid allows transparent sharing of information about the grid, power supply and users, making grid open and equal for all.

Friendly Interactive
Smart grid enables flexible adjustment of the operation mode of the power grid. Compatible with all types of power supplies and user access, it promotes active participation by power-generating enterprises and electricity users in grid scheduling.

Major projects

In China

In early 2011, construction of smart grid was fully included in the national development plan of China. In recent years, the smart grid of China has witnessed comprehensive breakthroughs in the field of equipment monitoring, system operation, intelligent interaction, communication and information. A series of demonstration projects have been completed and put into operation by State Grid Corporation of China, including the National Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage and Transmission Project, Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city (SSTEC), Xiamen flexible HVDC project, technical support system for smart grid dispatching, Yan'an Smart Substation and etc. China southern power grid carries out research and practice in new energy generation, flexible DC transmission and smart substation and so on. It has entered into a period of rapid development in scale, constituting a new economic growth point.

Distribution of SGCC's smart grid pilot projects

 

The demonstration project of National Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage and Transmission Project in Zhangbei, China
This demonstration project witnessed integrated application of smart substations, intelligent coordination control, high-precision wind power forecasting, energy storage and other key technologies for panorama monitoring of the wind farms, solar power station, energy storage stations and substations. It is capable of automatic configuration, intelligent optimization and smooth switching in wind/energy storage, PV/ energy storage and wind/PV/energy storage generation modes. Thus, the joint power output from the system combining wind power, photovoltaic power generation and energy storage is controllable and adjustable.

• Constructed in two phases, the project has a total capacity of 670MW, including 100MW of wind power, 40MW of photovoltaic power, and 20MW of energy storage for Phase I, and 400MW of wind power, 60MW of photovoltaic power and 50MW of energy storage for Phase II.

• With a standard system combining wind and photovoltaic power generation and energy storage, the project becomes the world's first renewable energy power generation project integrating wind power, photovoltaic power generation , energy storage system and smart power transmission. It testifies the model of combination power generation of Wind/Solar/Energy Storage, setting a good example of large-scale new energy integration for the world.

Illustration of National Wind/PV/Energy Storage Project in Zhangbei, Hebei

 

Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Demonstration Project
Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco City is a landmark comprehensive demonstration project of smart grid construction in China.

• Adoption of new technologies such as auto-distribution, equipment on-line monitoring, intelligent scheduling and intelligent substations, improves power quality and reliability of power supply.
• Integration of wind power, photovoltaic power and energy storage to micro-grid is achieved. Construction completed of a micro-grid energy management system based on intelligent scheduling, and full use of distributed power supply is realized.
• A comprehensive data management platform for smart operation has been built for on-site and remote management interaction with clients.
• The demonstration project of the eco-city smart grid reduces fuel consumption by 1,074 tons per year and saves 5,930 tons of standard coal. It is expected to reduce annual carbon dioxide emissions by 18,488 tons with remarkable effect in power saving and low emission.

Aerial view of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city

The Technology Demonstration Project of Zhoushan 5-terminal Flexible DC Transmission in Zhejiang, China
• With a voltage of 320 kV and transmission capacity of 1 GW, the project is the flexible DC transmission project with the highest voltage and the largest capacity in the world.
•The construction and commissioning of the project marks a breakthrough in key technology and engineering capability for high-voltage bulk flexible DC transmission projects.
• The project is the flexible DC project with the most numbers of terminals and largest transmission capacity for singular terminal in the world.
• The project adopts 200 kV DC voltage, with one converter station, in Dinghai, Daishan, Qushan, Yangshan and Sijiao respectively. With a total capacity of 1GW, it involves 141.5 km of transmission line.129km of it is submarine cable.
• The project sets a role model for large-scale promotion of multiterminal flexible DC and crosssea transmission technology in the World.

Zhoushan five-terminal flexible HV DC transmission project

 

Demonstration Project of Xiamen Flexible DC Transmission Technology
• With a voltage of 320 kV and transmission capacity of 1 GW, the project is the flexible DC transmission project with the highest voltage and the largest capacity in the world.
•The construction and commissioning of the project marks a breakthrough in key technology and engineering capability for high-voltage bulk flexible DC transmission projects.

Technology Demonstration Project of Unified Power Flow Controller for the 220 kV Ring Power Grid in West Nanjing
Through the application of high-power electronic technology, the project turns power flow from natural distribution into intelligent and flexible control. While maintaining the structure of the existing grid without adding new transmission channels, it solved such problems as power flow control, enhancement of power supply capacity and etc. plaguing construction, renovation and operation of conventional power grid.

• The world's first project based on modularized MMC (Modular Multilevel Converter).
•The central units are three parallel DC side voltage source converters (VSC), with a capacity of 2 60 MVA (series side) and +60MVA (parallel side).

Unified power flow controller-UPFC (Nanjing 220kV network)

Technical support system for smart grid dispatching in China
• Covering all dispatching centers of State Grid Corporation of China at provincial level and above, it integrates 7,867 stations, 800,000 data collection points, and 2,602 Wide Area Measurement Units.
• Smart grid dispatching and control systems were constructed and put into operation in 6 sub centers and 27 provincial centres, making the world's largest and most maneuverable dispatching and control system.
• Achieved real-time information sharing, three-tier coordinated control and operation, indepth security and protection for power grids of 220 kV and above.

Dispatch control center of SGCC

Yan'an 750 kV Smart Substation
• Being the first unattended 750 kV substation, it fully realized status visualization, operating proceduralization, condition-based maintenance and smart operation, with breakthroughs and innovations in many areas.
• It combined offline and online modes, unified data acquisition and analysis platform for status monitoring devices, and changed monitoring parameters from the "single diagnosis" to "comprehensive diagnosis".
• An integrated panoramic information platform was adopted to optimize integration of data from the whole station and improve the operation level of the substation, achieving visualization, conditionbased maintenance, smart alarming and other advanced functions of devices.

Yan'an 750 kV smart substation

 

United States

The U.S. has established via legislation the importance of developing smart grid and exercised coordination at the national level. Under the promotion and sponsorship lead by the Department of Energy, the smart grid in America has witnessed rapid development. A total of about 200 pilot projects have been carried out, mainly in advanced measurement, user system, distribution system, equipment development, system integration, power transmission system, regional demonstration and energy storage system. By the end of 2014, the number of smart meters installed reached 71.71 millionA, electric vehicle ownership amounted to 275,000, and charging and battery swap facilities reached 22,000.

Northwest Pacific Smart Grid Demonstration Project in the US
• The project was officially launched in 2010, and completed in June 2015. It is one of the largest smart grid demonstration project in the US.
• The project is a transregional smart grid demonstration project, involving 60,000 residential customers from five states, i.e., Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming.
• If 30% of the customers choose to participate in the demand response, the peak load of the demonstration area can be decreased by 8%.

Europe

Smart grid development in Europe is mainly led by the European Union, which formulates the overall objectives and direction for development, and provides policy and financial support. The smart grid piloting program in Europe is comprised of 281 projects and 90 smart meter projects in 30 countries, including about 150 R & D projects and 130 demonstration projectsA. Smart grid projects are focused mainly on six areas: smart grid management, large-scale integration of renewable energy, large-scale integration of distributed energy, demand side management, smart power consumption, smart homes and electric vehicles. By the end of 2014, the number of smart meters installed in United Kingdom, Germany and France reached 1.86 million, 800,000 and 320,000 respectivelyB, that of electric vehicle ownership reached 21400, 24400 and 31000 respectively, and that of charging and battery swapping facilities 2866, 2821, and 8600 respectively.

The E-Energy Smart Grid Demonstration Project in Germany
• Energy, power and information were integrated by utilizing information and communication technologies to build a power system with self-regulatory capacity.
• With a total investment of 140 million euros, the project was launched in 2008 and completed in 2014. It is partially undergoing business model study and demonstration operation.
• Six pilot areas were selected for verification of grid management, smart homes, electric vehicles, distributed energy and the future electricity market.

Distribution of the E-Energy smart grid demonstration project

 

Japan

In Japan, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) is the core department for organizing smart grid development, responsible for promoting related researches. The priorities of its smart grid development include five areas: access of renewable energy to the distribution network, transfer from centralized control to distributed control for the energy system, establishment of a strong grid that can withstand disasters, establishment of a new system for energy information transmission, and construction of "smart communities". By the end of 2014, 6.9 million smart meters had been installed in JapanA, electric vehicle ownership had reached 108,000, and the number of charging and battery swapping facilities 11,500.

Demonstration Project of "Next-Generation Energy and Social System"
• In consideration of the industrial, commercial and residential characteristics of each region, the project established four distinct modes of smart grid.
• The Kitakyushu Project is capable of reducing its peak load by about 20% via flexible pricing based on demand-side response.

A Source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF).
B Source: International Energy Agency (IEA).
C Source: "Smart Community--Japanese Experience".

Japan's four representative Smart Community projects

The Republic of Korea

The Republic of Korea attached great importance to the leading role of the government, established a national-level organization to coordinate the development of smart grid, and established the important position of the smart grid via legislation. The priorities of its smart grid development cover five areas: smart transmission and distribution grids, smart power terminals, smart transportation, smart power generation with renewable energy, and smart electricity service. By the end of 2014, it had installed 2.45 million smart meters.

Jeju Smart Grid Demonstration Project
• With its construction period between December 2009 and May 2013, the project involves a total investment of about $ 240 million.
• The demonstration project is mainly intended for testing and research of advanced smart grid technologies, and development of new business models.